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Geochemical study of groundwater in the Sho river fan, Toyama Prefecture for heat usage by geothermal heat pump

KANAME IWATAKE, TOSHIAKI MIZOGUCHI, SHINGO TOMIYAMA, JING ZHANG, HIROSHI SATAKE, AKIRA UEDA
Geochemical Journal, Vol. 47, No. 6, P. 577-590, 2013

ABSTRACT

Chemical and isotopic (D, 18O) compositions of 40 shallow groundwater, 14 observation well water and 2 river water samples in the Sho river fan, Toyama, northern part of central Japan, were analyzed to examine their water quality, origins and water flow in order to obtain baseline geochemical data for application of groundwater to geothermal heat pump (Geo-HP). Water temperatures of the groundwaters in the observation wells are almost constant at 15°C from surface to ca. 60 m in depth and increase up to 25°C at depth of 200 m with the thermal gradient of 6°C/100 m. This geothermal gradient is twice as high as that of the other areas in Japan, suggesting existence of high temperature geothermal sources beneath this region and a high potential for heat usage in winter. The isotopic results show that the groundwaters are a mixture of two big river waters (Sho and Oyabe rivers) and precipitation in the Sho river fan and that the contribution of infiltration from the Sho river has increased in recent 10 years. The Sho river has lower δ18O values than the Oyabe river. The groundwaters shallower than 80 m depth are of a Ca–HCO3 type. Deep groundwaters from observation wells were characterized by high in pH and HCO3 compared to the shallow groundwaters due to ion exchange with rocks containing clay minerals. The deep groundwaters are almost saturated or oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite, becoming confined due to the presence of an impermeable layer. In this paper, formation of calcite and iron hydroxide scale inside pipes of the Geo-HP was discussed from the chemical compositions of groundwater to examine whether the water is applicable to geothermal heat pump or not.

KEYWORDS

groundwater, heat usage, hydrogen isotope, oxygen isotope, scale, geothermal heat pump

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