JavaScript requeired.
Geochemical Journal
Geochemical Journal An open access journal for geochemistry
Published for geochemistry community from Geochemical Society of Japan.

Non-chondritic yttrium/holmium ratio and lanthanide tetrad effect observed in pre-Cenozoic limestones

Iwao Kawabe, Yoko Kitahara, Koh Naito
Geochemical Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1, P. 31-44, 1991


REE and Y in limestones have been determined by ICP-AES method coupled with pre-concentration chemical procedures. The lanthanide tetrad effect has been clearly observed in the REE patterns of two Permian limestones. It is the W-type tetrad effect seen in seawaters. Y/Ho ratios for the limestones show large positive deviations from the chondritic ratio. Similar non-chondritic Y/Ho ratios are seen in a Precambrian limestone from South Africa, seawaters, and marine phosphorites. Their REE patterns are well characterized by the W-type tetrad effect. These facts and recent results of aquatic geochemistry of REE and Y strongly suggest that the positive Y anomalies are intimately associated with the W-type tetrad effect of REE in natural aquatic solutions including seawaters and in some hydrogenous deposits from the solutions. Y is not a pseudo lanthanide that behaves like Ho in natural conditions where the lanthanide tetrad effect is operative. This must be a thermochemical effect related to the absence of 4f electron in Y3+ and the systematic differences in 4f electronic configurations in the REE3+ series. The REE plus Y patterns with positive Y anomalies and the W-type tetrad effect are important for the gochemical studies of limestones and other hydrogeneous deposits.

All Issues

Current Issue:
Impact Factor: 1.060 (2021)
Submission to final decision: 9.6 weeks (2022)
Geochemical Society of Japan

page top